The Program includes guidelines and resources for stakeholders to tackle local cigarette butt litter hotspots, a new grants program and a broader behaviour change campaign to be introduced in late 2020.
Why tackle cigarette butt litter?
The National Litter Index shows that cigarette butts are consistently the most-littered item in NSW. It is estimated that each year 1.32 billion cigarette butts are littered in NSW. Cigarette butts are unsightly, toxic and harmful to the environment. They are easily carried in stormwater runoff through drainage systems and eventually to local streams, rivers, and waterways. Cigarette filters contain cellulose acetate, a form of plastic that does not readily biodegrade and can persist in the environment.
Extensive research has been completed to understand smokers’ behaviour, attitudes, and knowledge towards cigarette butt disposal. This includes understanding the barriers and incentives to breaking habits and adopting appropriate butt disposal actions.
This research helped to guide the development of interventions and strategies to influence smokers’ disposal behaviour. These strategies,were later tested in a behaviour change trial, to determine the most effective strategies to reduce cigarette butt litter.
The following is EPA-led research into cigarette butt litter and littering behaviour.
- Butt littering behaviour in context: The Butt litter check: A foundation for the NSW EPA Cigarette Butt Litter Reduction Program; by Community Change (July 2017; PDF 2.3MB)
- Qualitative report: Qualitative research of cigarette disposal behaviour (August 2017; PDF 1.02MB)
NSW Butt Litter Index 2020 Report
The EPA has recently completed a Butt Litter Index (BLI) across NSW. The BLI applies the tested and validated Butt Litter Check (BLC) across the state to track and report on the cigarette butt littering rate and observe the reasons why people bin or litter their butts.
It will help track NSW’s progress towards decreasing the cigarette butt littering rate by 25% by 2025.
The project will provide the EPA with the ability to assess the performance of its cigarette butt prevention projects, including Round 1 of the new Cigarette Butt Litter Prevention Grants, and the new creative assets including new stencils, signage and messaging to be used by land managers on-site.
NSW Cigarette Butt Litter Prevention Trial
In 2018, the NSW EPA led a collaborative behaviour change trial in partnership with 16 local councils to understand what strategies are effective in reducing cigarette butt littering behaviour. Four key strategies were tested across 40 smoking sites.
Trial outcomes show binning rates increased from 38% to 58% (a 53% increase in binning behaviour). For some strategies a peak binning rate of 76% was achieved (a 144% increase in binning behaviour). The Trial provided significant insight into how to improve smoker’s binning behaviour.
Understand your Problem: Butt Litter Check
The EPA has developed the 'Butt Litter Check' tool to help understand why smokers may be littering cigarette butts and how to develop targeted ways to stop this behaviour.
The Butt Litter Check Guidelines (PDF 1.1MB) will take you through the four steps involved. A Butt Litter Check should take around 30 minutes to complete at each smoking area and will include at least one 15-minute observation session of smoker disposal actions in each area.
The Butt litter check tool contains the following key steps
- location inspection form (PDF 83KB)
- observation form (PDF 122KB)
- litter count form (PDF 49KB)
- location user survey (PDF 56KB)
The Butt Litter Check was adapted from the 'Local litter check', and targets cigarette-butt littering behaviour.
Guide to prevent cigarette butt littering
The NSW Government has developed a Guide to prevent cigarette butt littering (PDF 1439KB). This Guide provides detailed steps for land managers, local government, businesses and community groups to prevent cigarette butts from being littered. Applying these steps to public places across NSW can prevent almost 800 million cigarette butts from entering the environment.